and the aftermath of the Revolution (1920 - 1946)


1910 - April. Madero officially enters the presidential race against Porfirio Diaz.


1910- June. Diaz has presidential hopeful Madero jailed on phony charges. Diaz wins the presidential election.


1910 - September. Large parade in Mexico City to celebrate 100th year of independence. Diaz's car is met with silence by the crowd in attendance.


1910 - October. Madero issues the Plan of San Luis Potosi, dated October 5, the last day he had resided in the city. The plan called for armed rebellion to begin against Diaz in November. Madero actually issued the plan from San Antonio, Texas. Officially the revolution begins.


1911 - February. Madero decides to lead a group of revolutionary soldiers in attack against federal troops near Casas Grandes. Madero soon learns that he has no talent for leading troops and is crushed. From this point on in the revolution Madero leaves the fighting to Orozco, Villa and other proven and more experienced military leaders.


1911 - May 10. The city of Ciudad Juarez falls to Madero under the military leadership of General Orozco and Pancho Villa(*4). The federal commander was General Navarro. Madero did not order the capture of this important city but none-the-less occupied the city and set up a provisional government. General Orozco was absent from his new cabinet causing strife between the two men and more importantly friction between civilian and established military leadership that was to prolong the war and horrible suffering for the next decade.


1911 - May 21. An emissary of Jose Limantour meets with Madero near Ciudad Juarez. An agreement is signed, later both Diaz and Limantour would also sign. In the agreement Francisco Leon de la Barra, the Mexican ambassador to the United States, would serve as interim president until elections could be held(*7). The agreement was known as the Ciudad Juarez Accords.


1911 - May 25. President Diaz resigns and Madero is victorious. The defeat and capture of Ciudad Juarez was like writing on the wall to Diaz and he sued for peace. The Treaty of Ciudad Juarez called for his removal by the end of May. Diaz did not wait until the end of the Month and on the 25th of May he resigned. Zapata leads revolt against Madero.


1911 - May 26. Diaz enters a limousine with his wife where he proceeded to the railway station and left for the city of Veracruz.


1911 - May 25 -November 6. Interim presidency of Leon de la Barra.


1911 - June 17. Madero enters Mexico City, victorious.


1911 October 1. General elections for president. Madero wins with ninety percent of the vote.


1911 - November 27. The Zapatistas under the leadership of Emiliano Zapata issued the "Plan de Ayala", which called for the removal of Madero and major land reform(*9). Zapata revealed the plan, draped in a Mexican flag, accusing Madero of being traitorous to the principals of the revolution and being in league with the científicos, hacendados, and caciques of the country. The plan was issued from the State of Morelos.


1911 November 6. Madero and Pino Suarez take their oath of office ad elected president and vice president.


1912 - March 25. The "Plan Orozquista" was issued. With the support of the land baron Terrazas clan, Orozco and his 6,000 strong army called for the removal of Madero. The plan was social in nature calling for limited work days, wage increases and child labor reforms. The plan also called for the nationalization of the Mexican railroads, a concept which would later in the revolution be brought into practice. The plan also called for major land reform with all government lands being distributed to the people.


1912 - October. Felix Diaz, nephew of ex-President Diaz formed an army near Veracruz against Madero. Felix appealed to the Military element still lingering in the area that longed for the stability of ex-president Diaz. Felix Diaz was captured by government troops and transported to Mexico City where he escaped. While in prison Diaz conspired with fellow political prisoner Bernardo Reyes against Madero.


1913 - February 9. Felix Diaz released from prison. The military coup planned by Felix Diaz, Bernardo Reyes, and others begins(*10). The "Decena Tragica", or ten days of tragedy engulfs Mexico City in fighting. Not since Cortes laid siege to the city of Tenochtitlan had the central area of Mexico City seen such fighting.



1913 - February 18. Huerta turns against President Madero, joins a minor rebellion he was sent to fight, and sends General Aureliano Blanquet into the National Palace to arrest Madero. Madero's brother, Gustavo, and most of the government cabinet were also arrested(*11). The agreement in which Huerta changed sides was referred to as the "Pact of the Embassy", as the negotiations were held under the American ambassador, Henry Lane Wilson(*12). After a series of political and legal maneuvering Huerta assumes power as president of Mexico(*13).


1913 - February 19. Brother to Mexican President Madero, Gustavo Madero is killed by government soldiers, according to Huerta "without orders". Carranza publicly announces his opposition to the new Mexican president Huerta from his distant governor's office in Coahuila. Carranza began his opposition by sending telegrams to all governors and military heads calling for their support.


1913 - February 22. Francisco Madero and former vice president Jose Maria Pino Suarez were shot by government troops supposedly while trying to escape(*14). This assassination was greatly protested by the government of the United States, however no action was taken(*15).



1913 March 6. Pancho Villa and eight followers enter Mexico from the United States. Villa begins active military campaign that would continue for years.


1913 - March 26. The Plan of Guadalupe is initiated by Venustiano Carranza, Governor of Coahuila and Madero supporter. Carranza would not recognize the regime of president Huerta. Villa and Alvaro Obregón soon fall in with the politics of Carranza.


1913 - September. Huerta dissolves both houses of the Mexican legislature. The Mexican legislature was actively debating the dubious activities of Huerta at the time.


1914 February. Three-quarters of Mexico is under the control of rebel Revolutionary leaders. Huerta only controls the central Mexico area and Mexico City(*16).


1914 - April 9. The USS Dolphin affair. A small U.S. landing party from the USS Dolphin, stationed off the coast near Tampico and under the command of Captain Ralph T. Earle, were arrested after wandering into a restricted area.

The sailors were soon released and an apology given. U.S. Rear Admiral Henry T. Mayo thought the apology insufficient and demanded the Mexican army to hoist the US flag and present a twenty-one gun salute to the American Navy. This scenario caused serious political strife between the two governments.


1914 - April 14. United States President Wilson announces his intention to send troops and make a naval demonstration against Huerta.


1914 - April 21. United States President Wilson sends to Mexico the United States military to occupy the port of Veracruz for six months(*17). This action was taken following reports of a German ship called "Ypiranga" reported to be carrying arms and heading for Veracruz harbor. Pancho Villa and Zapata support the Convention of Aguascalientes against Carranza. The U.S. Navy sailors that engaged the Mexican army were referred to as "bluejackets"(*18).


1914 - April 27. The US flag was formally raised in the Mexican port city of Veracruz(*19). The United States Navy and Army set up military control of Veracruz and soon established school systems, attempted to control prostitution, and drove the vultures from the city streets.


1914 - April 28. Two detachments of five aircraft comprising of AB-3 Curtiss flying boats arrived in Veracruz and was the first US Military naval air support to fly missions against a foreign country(*20).


1914- July 8. Mexican President Huerta formally submits his statement of resignation, claiming that Mexican internal problems were caused by the intervention and interference of the United States(*21).


1914 August 12. President Carbajal resigns and follows Huerta into exile.


1914 October. The convention of Aguascalientes, summer-fall. First Chief Carranza thought it beneficial to hold a convention to determine who should be provisional president of Mexico until proper elections could be held. On October 1 the convention actually opened in Mexico City with Carranza's civilian and military delegates and promptly elected Carranza as commander in chief as head of the Executive power. As the Northern divisions then threatened to march on Mexico City, Carranza agreed to move the convention to Aguascalientes(*23) on October 5th.


1914 November 1. The Convention delegates at Aguascalientes formally elect General Eualalio Gutierrez, as president of the Republic(*24).


1914 November 10. Gutierrez declares Carranza to be a rebel and appoints Villa as operational commander of the two convention armies.


1914 November 16. Obregón takes command of Carrancista forces in Mexico City(*25). Obregón quickly pulls out under heavy pressure from First Chief Carranza to the Veracruz area and his last troops leave the city on the 24th.


1914 - November 23. United States troops, sailors and marines, on presidential orders leave the Mexican port city of Veracruz(*26).


1914 November 24. Zapata takes control of Mexico City one week before Villa can arrive with his own troops(*27). Both armies were trying to beat each other to the capital city.


1914 - December 4. Villa and Zapata meet at Xochimilco, near Mexico City to discuss the ouster of Carranza. The formation of a pact known as the " Xochimilco Pact", a verbal agreement on the generalities of the struggle. In the end both went their own ways(*28).

1914 December 6. Villa and Zapata review a parade of the Northern Division and the Southern Liberation Army from the balcony of the National Palace. After the parade the two men took turns sitting in the presidential chair.


1915. The year was known as the War of the Generals and the Year of Hunger in Mexico City. With the country in chaos and the infrastructure in ruin, food shipments were not reaching Mexico City. Beggars and prostitution was common place. Death wagons were routine on the streets of Mexico City taking the bodies of those dying from starvation to mass graves out of the city(*29). By February 8th the Constitutionalist army was setting up relief stations in the capital(*30).


1915 - January. Zapatista general Manuel Palafox, now the national Minister of Agriculture, founds the National Rural Credit Bank and orders the creation of Regional Agricultural Schools and the National Agriculture Implements Factory(*31).


1915 - January 5. General Obregon's army drives Zapata's forces from the strategic city of Puebla(*32). Obregón begins march to re-take Mexico City. Obregón now calls his army The Operational Army.

1915 January 28. Obregón re-takes Mexico City driving rebel troops North and South. Obregón forces President Gutierrez to abandon Mexico City. Gutierrez does not recognize Obregón and sets up provisional government in Nuevo Leon(*33). Roque Gonzalez Garza, a recently installed president by Villa was forced to move his government to the Zapata held town of Cuernavaca.


1915 February 6. Meeting between representatives of the government, the striking Mexican Electricians Union (affiliated with COM, the Casa del Obrero Mundial), and the Mexican Telephone and Telegraph Company was held to discuss worker demands. As a result of the meeting the the government took control of the company and placed management into the hands of the workers. The electricians' leader, Luis N. Morones, was made general manager(*34).


1915 March 10. Obregon's Operational Army marches from Mexico City to the North against Villa.


1915 - April 6. General Obregón has major military victory against Villa at Celaya. Villa leads a group of 30,000 cavalry and foot soldiers against Obregón(*35). United States government recognizes President Carranza as de facto president of Mexico. Obregon's official casualty report stated that Villa lost 4,000 dead, 5,000 wounded, and 6,000 taken prisoner while government losses were 138 dead and 227 wounded. This battle was the most bloody of the Revolution(*36).


1915 April 29. Villa and Obregón fight the battle of Trinidad. General Obregón looses an arm during the fighting that lasted more than a month(*37).


1915 June 20 - July 10. The Battle of Aguascalientes. General Obregón catches up to a retreating Villa near the city of Aguascalientes on June 20th(*39). On July 6th Obregón launches attack on the now Villa fortified city. On July 10th, and almost out of ammunition and supplies, Obregón breaks into the city center, taking the city and scattering Villa's troops(*40).


1915 July 11. Zapatista forces abandon Mexico City to Pablo Gonzalez(*41). Gonzales soon evacuates the city.


1915 July 17. Obregon's advance cavalry enters Zacatecas. Villa continues his retreat to Torreon.


1915 July 19. Obregon's forces take San Luis Potosi. By August and with San Luis Potosi as a base, Villista forces had been cleared out.


1915 August 2. Pablo Gonzalez again enters Mexico City, this time to stay. The Southern Liberation Army under Zapata would never again occupy Mexico City.


1915 - October 19. United States government recognizes the Carranza government at a de facto government(*44) and banned further arm sales to his enemies, particularly Villa. Obregon's forces were given permission to enter the United States in it's pursuit ofVillista forces.


1915 - August. The Casa del Obrero Mundial, COM, labor union was re-established in Mexico City with Luis N. Morones as secretary general of the now reorganized Federal District Union Federation. Branches were soon set up in San Luis Potosi, Yucatan, Veracruz, Pamaulipas, Coahuila, Puebla, Guanajuato, and Hidalgo(*47).


1915 - November 30. Striking railway workers are conscripted into the army.


1915 - December 20. The City of Ciudad Juarez falls to Obregon's troops. By December 31st the Constitutionalists controlled all of the cities in Mexico.


1916 - January. Villista Pablo Lopez attacks and kills 15 American miners at Santa Isabel, Chihuahua(*48). Lopez quickly becomes the number two target of the United States behind Villa. Lopez was captured by Carrancista troops and allegedly executed. There is some debate as to weather the corpse actually shown to US troops was the body of Lopez(*49).


1916 January 15. Francisco Rojas, a Villista labor organizer, Juan Aguilar, and Jose Moreno were executed by a firing squad commanded by Captain Javier J. Valle against the wall of the Northwest Railroad Station in Ciudad Juarez.


1916 - January 19. General Pablo Gonzalez public declaration against labor agitation. The Jockey Club union building is stormed by government troops. Soon local COM offices are shut down and the Red Battalions disbanded.


1916 - March 9. At three in the morning Columbus New Mexico, is raided by Villa in response to the US recognition of Carranza(*50). Several Americans were killed by the 485 troops dispatched by Villa against the residents of Columbus. New Mexico's Senator Albert Bacon Fall calls for a half-million US Army occupation of Mexico(*51). Mexican President Carranza calls for a constitutional convention.


1916 - March 15. On orders from United States president Wilson, General John "Black Jack" Pershing(*52) crosses into Mexico and leads a motorcade of US soldiers carrying Springfield rifles into Mexico in search for Villa (*53). Horses instead of motorcars would have been more effective and after five weeks the expedition is bogged down due to political reasons and unfriendly terrain(*54). The United States military and Pershing used the expedition and border build up to test and modernize US army training and tactics(*55).


1916 - March 29. Reported encounter between Pershing forces and Villa(*56).


1916 - April 18. The Plan of Revolutionary Political and Social Reforms was issued in Jojutla. Thought to be inspired and drafted by Antonio Diaz Soto y Gama, who represented the political center of the Zapatista political machine. The plan called for such things as divorce laws, education reform, and adoption of a parliamentary system of government(*57).


1916 - April 29. Talks between General Obregón, minister of war in the Carranza government and US General Scott begin in El Paso Texas to discuss the withdrawal of US troops from Mexican soil(*58).

1916 - May 5. Some eighty Mexicans, some say including some Texans, celebrated Cinco de Mayo by crossing into Glenn Springs Texas and killing three United States soldiers who were guarding a wax factory. At the city of Boquillas the group looted stores and kidnapped two people(*59).


1916 - Early June. Pershing sends some of his troops south of his headquarters to investigate a reported troop buildup near the city of Carrizal. Two troops of black cavalry under the command of Captains Charles T. Boyd and Lewis S. Morley were sent(*60). Boyd and several soldiers were killed and captured by some 400 Carrancista soldiers(*61). Some forty - five Mexicans and fourteen Americans were killed.


1916 - June. Carranza forces attack Tlaltizapan and capture the munitions factory. A massacre(*62) occurred forcing Zapata and his remaining troops to organize resistance in mountain bases(*63). Morelos had been occupied.


1916 - June 8. After the events at Carrizal, US President Wilson federalizes the nation's state militia and orders all troops to the Mexican border(*64).


1916 - June 21. Carranza announces that any US troop movements must be north towards the US border and not south.


1916 July 31. After meeting in secret the federal council of the newly formed Mexican Regional Federation of Labor begins a general strike that starts with the Mexico City electricians' union, blacking out the capital city(*65).


1916 - September. General Gonzalez issues order against the villages of Morelos stating that peasant families would be deported.

1916 - September 4. Meetings renew between the United States and Mexico regarding US troops on Mexican soil. No party would budge from previous positions.


1916 - September 30. Colonel Jesus Guajardo, the man who would murder Zapata, kills 180 men, women and children in Tlaltizapan, Morelos for being supporters of Zapata and allegedly for not paying taxes.


1916 September. Villa briefly marches into the city of Chihuahua and releases all prisoners from jail and supplies his troops at the expense of the citizens of the city.


1916 October. Villa issues a manifesto calling the nation to resist and expel the invading US troops under Pershing. He also calls for expropriation of foreign mining and railroads. No foreigner with less than twenty five years residence should be allowed to own property in Mexico. The manifesto ended with "Mexico for the Mexicans!".


1916 - October 4. Zapata forces capture the water pumping station at Xochimilco, which supplied the drinking water for Mexico City(*67).


1916 December 1. Zapata launches major offensive against Carranza forces occupying various villages in the state of Morelos. General Gonzalez's troops begin a formal retreat.


1916 - December 22. For the third time during the Revolution, Villa captures the city of Torreon with his force of 5,000 men(*69).


1917 - January. U.S. General Pershing withdraws from Mexico without coming close to capturing Villa(*70).


1917 February 5.(*71) Ratification and approval of the convention of 1917 in Querétaro. Delegates had been meeting for six weeks. Article 27 calls for land reform, article 123 for an eight hour workday, many restrictions against religious activity. The constitution was to go into effect on May 1, 1917.


1917 - March 11. Election of Carranza to the Presidency of Mexico. Zapatistas refuse to recognize Carranza. Assumed the office on May 1. Carranza soon announces that he accepts the constitution of 1917, but has no notion of enforcing it. Carranza breaks politically with Obregón and assumes control of the war ministry.


1917 - May. A Zapatista unit commander, Lorenzo Vazquez, rebels and attempts to hold secret talks with Carranza. Lorenzo was quickly hanged for treason by loyal Zapata troops(*72).


1918 - May. (CROM) the Regional Confederation of Mexican Labor is formed by a national labor congress in the city of Saltillo. CROM attaches itself to Obregon's political party. This labor union would go on to influence Mexican political leaders for years to come.


1919 - Winter. As in 1916 Zapata had relinquished control of the cities of Morelos to General Gonzalez and was fighting from the mountains with guerrilla units.


1919 - March. Zapata hears rumors of conflict between Carrancistas General Pablo Gonzalez, and Colonel Guajardo, famous for his massacres of Zapata civilians. Zapata sends a letter to Guajardo suggesting that Guajardo change sides and join him. Guajardo promptly shows letter to Gonzalez and Guajardo is instructed to lead Zapata on.


1919 - March. Letter from Zapata to Carranza. Zapata's famous "man to man" letter calling for Carranza to retire in the name of the masses and for the good of the country. Letter was a passionate writing explaining why he had fought each Mexican president for over a decade. This letter was written to "citizen Carranza", not president Carranza.


1919 - April. Villista forces capture the town of Parral.


1919 - April 10. Mexican government troops kill Zapata near the Hacienda de Chinameca, in Zapata's home territory, by trickery at the hand of Colonel Guajardo on orders of General Pablo Gonzalez(*74).


1919 September 4. With the death of Zapata, a meeting was held by the remaining leaders of the Zapatista political machine in the city of Cuautla. Gildando Magana was elected as the successor of Zapata.


1919 November 28. Magana holds meeting with Carranza in Mexico City where Carranza offers guarantees of security for surrendering Zapatista forces. By December the fighting had ceased(*75).


1920 - March. President Carranza tries to install Ignacio Bonillas as president of Mexico to succeed him. General population of the country sees this act by Carranza to install a puppet president as wrong for the country.


1920 - March. Obregón makes an alliance with Magana assuring Obregón of Zapatista support in his fight against Carranza.


1920 - April. Alvaro Obregón heads revolt against Carranza, who is killed. Villa is granted amnesty from interim president Adolfo de la Huerta, who turns office over to President elect Obregón. The "Plan de Agua Prieta", was formed by Obregón , Calles, and Adolfo de la Huerta and officially issued on April 23. The army of Obregón consisted mostly of Northerners that marched on Mexico City.

1920 - May 7. Carranza flees Mexico City and is soon killed by a bodyguard in the Puebla mountains.


1920 - May 9. Obregón marched into Mexico City.


1920 - May 24. Adolfo de la Huerta is chosen as provisional president.


1920 - June 2. 20,000 soldiers, including Zapatistas, march past the national palace in support of the new regime.


1920 - July 9. Minister of the army and navy, General Plutarco Elias Calles, declares there will be no peace with Villa and calls for his surrender. Villa breaks off contact with the government and goes into hiding in his mountain stronghold. Calles sends off troops in pursuit of Villa.


1920 - July 26. Villa and his men, after a five day forced march, attack the city of Sabinas, loot the town and tear up fifty miles of railroad track.


1920 - July 28. A force of government troops arrive at Sabinas and strike a deal with Villa. Terms: 1) Villa lay down arms and retire. 2) Villa receives ownership of the Canutillo hacienda, located in the state of Durango. 3) Villa is allowed to keep 50 trusted men under arms. 4) The government would pay a years salary to anyone currently with Villa. 5) Those men of Villa's who wished to continue on in military life could join the government army.


1920 - September 5. Election of Obregón to the presidency of Mexico. This ascension of Obregón ends the most violent years of the Revolution.


1920 - December 1. Obregón assumes his elected office of President of Mexico.


1923. Pancho Villa is assassinated while driving his car on Gabino Barreda Street in Parral, Chihuahua. Some speculate by government troops, in response to Villa's public announcement during the summer that he was planning to come out of retirement. Some speculate it was nothing more that a group of citizens carrying out vengeance of their own.


1923 - July. Diplomatic links with the United States are re- established.


1923. Calles is designed successor to the presidency by Mexican President Obregón. Revolt of Adolfo de la Huerta is suppressed. Calles draws immediate political violence from Catholic leaders and conservative special interest groups and landed hacendados.


1924. CROM, the Confederacion Regional Obrera Mejicana,(*76) president, Luis N. Morones, holds much power over new president Calles and is even placed in the presidential cabinet as secretary of labor. CROM began as a loose association of trade unions.


1925. Church state struggle starts to heat up the political landscape and the Cristero religious war which would last several years is formed.


1926-1927. Yaqui Indian uprising in the state of Sonora over the return of Yaqui lands(*77).


1926- July 31. Strike by Catholic priests called by archbishop of Mexico Jose Mora y del Rio. For the first time in four hundred years no baptism of babies, masses held, or last rites for the dying were given. The country was morally confused as to where their loyalties should be given.


1927. United States and Mexico argue over rights of United States oil companies and their holding located on Mexican soil. Unites States Ambassador Dwight Morrow replaced Ambassador James Sheffield.

1928- July 17. Ex-president and current president hopeful Obregón is assassinated by artist Jose de Leon Toral(*78). Obregón was attending a banquet in the district of San Angel in Mexico City. Toral was a student of radical Sister Concepcion Acevedo de la Llata, also known as Madre Conchita(*79).


1928. Cristero War is brought to an end by President Portes Gil. Calles forms the PNR, National Revolutionary Party. Rubio is elected president. General Escobar fails in a military rebellion. Ex-president Obregón is assassinated.


1929 - March. In the historic city of Querétaro the foundation of the Official Political Party of Mexico, the PNR, or the National Revolutionary Party was established. Initially formed as a basis for individuals to do battle politically instead of seeing the need to take up arms against each other. The party was re- organized in 1938 as the Party of the Mexican Revolution, or PRM, and again in 1946 as the Party of Institutional Revolution, or PRI.


1929 - May. Bloody rebellion by National University Students in Mexico City over the new policy of giving written exams instead of oral exams. The battle between police and students brought an intellectual element into the revolutionary years. Soon the rampaging students turned their attention to President Calles, and began calling for his removal with the university becoming a focal point of unrest.


1932- Mexican President Rubio resigns over severe economic depression and political problems. Abelardo Rodriguez assumes the presidency of Mexico.


1933 - December. PNR meets in Querétaro to agree to radical new programs and formally elect Cárdenas as presidential candidate. Meeting was initially held to approve Calles' Six- Year Plan. The delegates soon took control of the convention and radically rewrote the land reform measures(*81). Graciano Sanchez spoke at the convention in the name of the peasants and swayed the delegates with his oratory skills. Sanchez pointed out the problems of the implementation of article 27 of the constitution of 1917 and spoke of the dignity of the rural Indians.


1934. Cárdenas is elected president. Socialist Education program is initiated by Mexican congress. Aggressive agrarian land reform initiated.


1935. President Cárdenas supports and encourages the Mexican masses to strike and organize under unions. Extensive land distribution is initiated. Calles opposes. Organized labor unions gain in political strength.


1936. (CTM) Mexican Confederation of Labor is formed to back Cárdenas against Calles.


1937 - May 23. Foundation of the Sinarquista movement by Catholic proletariat against the revolution. Risen from the ashes of the failed Cristero rebellion this movement was led by Salvador Abascal who came to prominence by leading a group of similar minded individuals called the "Base". This movement did not embrace the physical violence that the Cristero's did and called for a Mexico "without Anarchy" and a country "with order". The base support of this movement was in the rural areas and with landless peasants. The movement was founded on the same principles that General Franco had put in place in Spain, basically to organize a Popular Front. One of the first places visited by the movement was the bastion of anti-clerical thought, the state of Tabasco. On May 14, 1938 the first mass was held in Tabasco since Governor Garrido began his anti-church tyranny in the early


1938 - March 18. Oil expropriation began (formation of PEMEX). The United States thinks about suspending silver purchases from Mexico to reverse the expropriation. This thought quickly died as silver lobby groups in Washington feared Cárdenas may nationalize American silver interests in Mexico as well. This move by President Cárdenas swept the country in a sense of nationalism and pride. Cárdenas is forced to sell oil to Axis countries as American and European nations cut off his markets with a boycott(*83).


1938 - March 30. (PNR) is reorganized as a Mexican popular front and becomes the Party of the Mexican Revolution (PRM). This reorganization was called for by president Cárdenas in response to the Sinarquista movement and with the confrontation between Mexico and the foreign owned oil interests being nationalized by Mexico. Cárdenas thought it best to overhaul the country's official party to prepare for the rocky road Mexico was sure to be traveling. This reorganization principal was very popular in fascist Italy(*84) at the time and Cardenas's enemies used the event to further brand him a communist or fascist.


1939 - September 14. (PAN) The National Action Party is founded to oppose the PRM. The political tide was running against Cárdenas and his perceived "communistic tendencies", and under the leadership of Manuel Gomez Morin the PAN was formed to become the first effectively organized political party to challenge the official party. Initially referred to as a "clerical party" or a traditionalist party, PAN was and has never been in actuality associated to any great degree with the goals of the church and instead saw itself as a more socially based organization. PAN was more aligned with a capitalistic concept of political thought.


1940 -July 7. Manuel Avila Camacho is victorious in presidential election. New era begins. Peaceful transition of political power.


1946 -- PRM changes its name to the PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional or Institutional Revolutionary Party). The PRI will win every presidential election in Mexico for the rest of the 20th century, due to corruption and voting fraud! The surprise election of opposition candidate Vicente Fox in the year 2000 will be the first election not won by the PRI candidate in Mexico.